Howdy everyone, and welcome to a fun little interlude here at This Animatronic Life.  Thanks to everyone for their great comments and questions about my last article, all about GHP’s parade work.  Answers will be posted shortly!

Today, the answer to a question I get frequently asked at various events and in online postings: what is my personal favorite animatronic character?  Instead of just the one, here are my top ten favorite animatronic figures.  Some are my own company’s creations, others are from Disney parks and beyond—the whole thing is just one fan’s (somewhat informed) opinion!

In ascending order, my top 10 favorite animatronics of all time:

10. Mark Twain in the Rocking Chair from Epcot’s American Adventure: A strong start from one of the world’s greatest animatronics attractions, Epcot’s The American Adventure.  When one thinks of men flying to the moon and back using 1960s technology, I think of the incredible technical feats of this show using show control technologies from the ‘70s—it is amazing what was achieved.  This first Mark Twain figure in the show represents some of the greatest in animatronics magic: he is in a rocking chair, with no visible means of power or control, with very fluid movement and he’s smoking a cigar featuring a real, live smoke effect.  The illusion of life at its best.

9. The miners from Knott’s Berry Farm’s Calico Mine Ride: A lot of readers might think this attraction is a little long in the tooth these days, but the Calico Mine Ride is a real milestone in the history of animation-heavy themed attractions.  The ride opened in 1960, and had dozens of full-scale human figures, most of them animated.  Although relatively simple in motion, the moving figures were cleverly designed—hammering, drilling, panning—using largely rotational, reactive animation for a very effective presentation.  Their faces are frequently on a similar level for character quality with Blaine Gibson, and others.  The ride predated the human figure-populated rides at Disney by seven years, outside the World’s Fair attractions.  When GHP had the opportunity to create several new animated characters for the attraction in the 1990s, it was a dream come true.  The Calico Mine Ride is still one of my favorite rides.

8. Disneyland’s Pirates Auctioneer: The Auctioneer is to Pirates of the Caribbean at Disneyland what Mark Twain and Ben Franklin are to the American Adventure.  He may be only one character out of many, but the Auctioneer is to most fans the star of the ride.  Just look at how beautifully animated the figure is next time you ride: watch his eyes, his subtle poses, major body motions, reactions to the catcalls from other pirates—wow!  Few guests realize that the Auctioneer figure has a function unique to just about any other character in any attraction—a knee bend on his left leg that allows him to lean toward the pirates on the opposite side of the water, just like in the great Marc Davis concept for the character.  It’s a great move, very dramatic and it moves his entire body.  And of course, his costume is among the most incredible ever created for an animatronic figure, by the great Alice Davis.  Her patterns are still used by costumers for the attraction today.  Technically speaking, the figure has been one of the most advanced in the attraction—indeed in all of Disneyland—since the ride’s opening day, and has been upgraded several times since, including to an A-100 frame with compliant hydraulics in recent years.

7. Jack Skellington from Haunted Mansion Holiday: Okay, here’s one favorite figure that has a good deal of personal meaning, in addition to being very cool.  Jack was the very first animatronic figure GHP created for a classic Disney attraction—indeed it was the first high-end animatronic character created by an outside company for any Disney attraction—and opened the door for my company to create figures for dozens of Disney projects around the world.  So, he’s a big piece of my company’s history.  All that aside, Jack is technically a unique and wonderful figure: very spindly limbs, thin hands, neck, big round head with silicone mask—a challenging design!  But I put my whole bag of tricks into Jack, and I hear from lots of people that he’s their very favorite figure, period.  GHP subsequently built two more Jack figures for Tokyo Disneyland’s version of the attraction, which opened in 2002, a year after the original premiered.

6. Nature’s Wonderland Fighting Stags: I may be dating myself a little by listing these figures, and some might point out that they technically don’t qualify as animatronics, since they were purely mechanical figures.  BUT—if you’ve ever seen footage of the figures or remember them from the Mine Train Thru Nature’s Wonderland, you know that they accomplished what we animators strive for in everything: the true illusion of life.  Using just simple motors and cams, the Disney animators led by the design genius of our pal Bob Gurr created a scene that looked absolutely real, with these two big stags, horns locked, legs trying to dig in for traction, teeth bared.  It looked exceptionally lifelike—so much so that I’ve heard stories of the Pack Mules getting spooked by them from their nearby trail!

Our pal Bob Gurr read this story this morning and sent me this great additional info about the Fighting Stags (err…Elk!):

Interesting you list the Fighting Stags. Actual name was the Fighting Elk – Job No. 4988 with drawings made from 3/11/60 thru 7/1/60. The animation was at the time referred to as the Battling Elk.

What made this thing look real was that no two motions ever repeated exactly like today’s digital precision. This was because, while the cams repeated, the actual pneumatic response varied depending on a whole bunch of factors; time and heat of the day, changing air pressure, gummed up needle valves, wear, and constant valve re-adjustment by the maintenance crew to get the animals to behave.

The really cool secret was that due to the mass of both Elk, and their dynamic interaction, the show effect was constantly different. Guests would never see exactly the same show no matter how many times they went on the ride. It was true Free Random Reality…known as life-like animation!


5. Hippie Crane: When it comes to iconic animatronic characters, I think the Hippie Crane from America Sings is probably near the top of anyone’s list.  I must have watched that show more than 200 times during its run, and that figure always got big laughs from the audience, with his unexpected fluidity and range of motion.  It was a Marc Davis character masterpiece, paired with some of the clever old animatronics designers who were the pioneers of the art.  Even now, watching videos of the show, the Hippie Crane is such a knockout figure.  The character was used for many years at WDI as an animation training character for new animators to hone their skill.

4. Fantasmic! Dragon: There has perhaps been more written about Disneyland’s new Fantasmic! Dragon that just about any animatronic figure ever (I can think of one exception…), for both good and bad.  Let me say this: don’t believe everything you read on the Internet!  The Dragon is one of the largest animatronic figures ever built, has more functions than almost any figure in all of Disneyland, and has the special consideration of having to live underground in a space that is actually shorter than the figure—it is one complex creation!  The figure has around 60 microprocessors running constantly to check against dozens of conditions which must be all perfectly in sync for her to operate.  I love it because the character is just so extreme.  GHP created a full special effects package for the head (fire, mist, lights), all the tricky animation on a big scale, and the hidden show action systems below ground.  Nothing compares with the complexity and enormity of this character, but the show payoff is equally enormous.  I think it might be safe to say that for her brief appearance, the Maleficent Dragon really does steal the show.

3. Alec Tronic: This guy performed for a few years in Innoventions at Epcot, and was a pretty minor attraction, given all the other things to see and do in Innoventions and Epcot.  But, for those who took the time to seek out his little show, Alec Tronic probably stands out as not only a great looking figure, but one of the best animated characters ever.  The figure was programmed by animator extraordinaire David Feiten (one of the great animators from Disney’s golden age of animatronics) and sings, raps, and jokes through an exceptionally clever script and series of demonstrations (the Presidential Rap is especially memorable).  The figure was a lightly dressed compliant A-100 character, the Rolls Royce of Disney animatronics for some time.  Find a video of the show—it really will amaze you.

2. Wendell the Animatronic Unicyclist: This really isn’t tooting my own horn, and I really do love this character—I promise!  About 1987, I had an idea for an animatronic character that I hoped would really blow people away with his performance.  What could be cooler than having a figure ride a unicycle with no visible means of support?  It took me two years to design and build (back then, Garner Holt Productions was just me and one or two part-time employees and the shop cat), and in 1989 I premiered Wendell the Unicyclist at a big technology show in Los Angeles.  In addition to the unicycle gag, Wendell was a fully-functional animatronic human with 26 different moves—he could tip his hat and look at you with a variety of expressive facial functions.  He was a huge hit, and helped launch my company forward with work on major projects at MGM Grand Adventures in Las Vegas, at Knott’s Berry Farm, and elsewhere.  Wendell still makes occasional appearances, and hasn’t taken a tumble yet!

1. Original Mr. Lincoln figure from the 1964/65 New York World’s Fair: Without this figure, my company would not exist.  I fell madly in love with the art and science of animatronics when I saw pictures of the Mr. Lincoln figure being built for the 1964/65 New York World’s Fair in the August 1963 issue of National Geographic.  I was smitten!  By the time I got to see Mr. Lincoln in person at Disneyland in the late 1960s, the figure was still almost identical to the Fair version.  Old timers will remember the great poses the figure used to perform: hands on his jacket lapels, held behind his back, grand gestures, subtle and smooth.  He was a remarkable achievement, and really did look like a real person.  This is a truly historic show: in addition to being the very first attraction to operate on both coasts simultaneously (during the brief time the World’s Fair overlapped the Disneyland version in 1965), it also holds the record for the most incarnations of an attraction poster!  The current incarnation of the figure at Walt Disney World’s Hall of Presidents is a close second for Lincoln greatness, and nothing can beat that original Blaine Gibson sculpt.  Best of all, the figure was the catalyst for all other animatronics to follow.  He proved the technology was feasible and very, very effective as a storytelling device.  That’s why animatronics are still part of the biggest, best new attractions all over the world.  There isn’t a screen around that can make a character look better, or more real.

I hope my little indulgence as a fan will be forgiven—and that you’ll chime in with your thoughts on your favorite animatronics!

Garner Holt is the founder and president of Garner Holt Productions, Inc. (GHP)  Located in San Bernardino, CA. GHP is the world’s largest designer and fabricator of animatronics, show action systems, special effects, and other creations for theme parks, museums, retail and dining experiences, and other attractions.  Inspired by a childhood trip to Disneyland and a lifelong love of Disney theme parks, Garner founded his company when he was only 16 years old.  Since 1977, GHP has created nearly 3,000 individual animatronics and hundreds of other items for clients like the Disney Theme Parks, Universal Studios, Chuck E. Cheese Restaurants, Coca-Cola, McDonald’s, NASA, Lockheed-Martin, and hundreds of other clients.  Find out more about Garner and GHP at

  • DisneyanaFan

    The giant animatronic monsters on the Sinbad ride at Tokyo Disneysea are my favorites, and probably warrant a mention.

  • bamato

    Garner, your articles always offer us all a special treat! Thanks so much for sharing!

  • IndyFan1

    We’d be lucky enough to get just one article from you, Garner. But the fact that we’ve gotten several is astounding!! Thanks so much for taking time out of your unbelievable busy schedule to give us some insight into your remarkable realm! Also, I’ve always been partial to some of the animals in the Jungle Cruise because of their minimal but very fluid and realistic movements (much like the fighting stags from Wonderland).

  • eicarr

    The Hippie Crane is my #1 all time favorite!!!

  • Garner, wonderful article as always

    I have five favorite animatronics:

    1) the Wicked Witch in the Great Movie Ride at Disney Hollywood Studios
    2) Bob Gurr’s King Kong at Universal Studios Hollywood (Oh how I miss that old ape)
    3) The new dragon in Disneyland’s Fantasmic.
    4) the Pirates Auctioneer at Disneyland
    5) the new Lincoln figure with the electronic face

    Of course, there are many other impressive animatronics, some with very impressive movements, but these are my favorites.

  • chesirecat

    Thanks for the great story! I would say that Jack Skellington is my favorite animatronic, looks amazing and exactly like the character. I also like the Wicked Witch of the West in the Great Movie Ride. I also like the video of the new Lumiere animatronic, not sure how its done but the black background makes me think that it might be more of an advanced puppet, than actually having mechanics in Lumiere’s thin “arms”.

  • Rubbish

    Years ago, I was working at Pirates of the Caribbean and spoke with some Imagineers who were working on the auctioneer figure. They were installing a new control cabinet just for that figure (because it was so complex). The old control cabinet was apparently powerful enough to be moved over t control all of the characters in the Pirates chase scene, which gave me some perspective on just how advanced the auctioneer character really was.

    The Imagineers said they had been testing the use of a whip in the auctioneer’s hand, and were able to successfully get the character to crack the whip. They all seemed very excited about this fact, but said Disney’s legal team would never allow it because the whip was unpredictable. If it were to randomly come in contact with another figure, or if the repeated motion made the character’s hand break off, there was some potential for injury to the guests.

    I didn’t get to see the effect myself, but it sure sounded like the Imagineers liked to push the envelope with what was possible. Hopefully someday we’ll see effects like that added to the Disney rides.

  • Disneykin Kid

    Garner, thanks for sharing, we can see the true Disney fan in you. Your articles make us rabid Disney fans even more rabid! It’s comforting that Disney animatronics are in the hands of a true Disney fan.

  • MickeysImagination

    Garner, Another wonderful article. Each and every time I have an opportunity to experience an attraction that utilize Animatronics, i get this giddy, excited feeling, because they are just too cool. Your top ten list is hard to argue against and it would be hard to put together my own list. Dusty included the Wicked Witch and she is marvelous with her sweeping gestures and piercing stare (I have goosebumps), too many to list.

    Anyways…any videos to share of your unicyclist friend Wendell?

    Thanks again,

    • danyoung

      Check out this link –

      I’d never seen this figure before – truly an amazing accomplishment!

      • jcruise86

        THANKS for that excellent link, Dan! That unicyclist AA was so realistic it creeped me out, like the animation associated with Bob Z. But I liked it for that reason. GHP, please talk Cedar Fair into hiring you to make a permanent haunted attraction for Knott’s!

      • jcruise86

        And let us not forget the Merryville Bros.
        (Approx. 5-second ad before it begins.)

  • Disneykin Kid

    Your unicyclist would be perfect somewhere in Main Street, providing passersby one of those ‘how did they do that?’ moments.

  • 1WaltFan

    I think Lumiere in the new Enchanted Tales with Belle needs to get on the list. Just from watching the video it looks amazing.

  • SpectroMan

    Wonderful article, Mr Holt! Love these the most of any new feature column on MiceAge.
    Did not know that original Lincoln had those hand gestures – WOW! Now I’m dying to see it in action.
    I couldn’t even begin to make a list of my Top 10 since there’s so many…but many would be the identical ones as you have chosen.

    Best to you as always.

  • Fantastic article, thank you. I have to agree I would love to see that unicyclist on main street!

  • lynxwiler

    I completely agree with you! This is a great list!

  • KyleDixonDesigns

    Thank you so much, Garner! As a new member here at MiceChat, I look forward to your new additions the most! I’m a theatrical designer, so I totally relate to the drama you and your team create on a daily basis!

    Again, thank you for your articles!

  • Perry Simon

    Why not the Yeti!!!!! Just kidding!!!!!!

    • jcruise86

      I think he mentioned the Yeti with this sentence: “There has perhaps been more written about Disneyland’s new Fantasmic! Dragon that just about any animatronic figure ever (I can think of one exception”. I could be wrong.

  • coasterboy

    Great article and list!

    I would add:

    Lava Monster, Journey to the Center of the Earth, TDS
    SIR, Alien Encounter, Magic Kingdom (and Skippy too!)
    Hopper, It’s Tough To Be A Bug, DL & AK
    Chief Joseph, American Adventure, Epcot
    Will Rogers, American Adventure, Epcot
    Lumiere, Fantasyland, MK
    All the characters in Sinbad, TDS for charm and fluidity.
    and finally, The Country Bears – for being able to carry on a long show with very limited technology!

  • DisWedWay

    Wish more people were allowed to see the Fabulouse Joe Crocker Mapo animated figure at WDI. I always hoped they would do a Tina Turner to go with Joe.

  • Crazee4mm

    Is there a video of Wendell the Animatronic Unicyclist anywhere? I’d love to see him in action.

  • Bongo

    Glad to see the Calico Mine Train hasn’t left our minds yet!

  • jcruise86

    Excellent article! THANK YOU!

    What about the Chuck E. Cheese rock band? Kidding!

    They might not have been the most advanced, but I loved the family in the Carousel of Progress. I haven’t seen them in about 11 years, but I hope to see them again in WDW.

    I’d love a state of the art miner or logger at Knott’s. Preferably, one who could also become scary at Halloween.

    • jcruise86

      I like the Universal’s T-Rex & other Jurassic Park dinosaurs too.

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  • skoolpsyk

    In the future when all the AAs have been replaced we will have articles like “Top 10 Digital Projections!”

  • Susan Hughes

    I would have to guess that, despite living in Southern California, Mr. Holt has not ridden Radiator Springs Racers at Cars Land. If he had, I”m sure it would get a mention of some sort. They have the most advanced, realistic animatronics I’ve ever seen. It feels like you’re not looking at animatronics, but real animation. That’s how good the movements are. They’re not slow or herky jerky. The movements are lifelike, as if the characters came off the screen and were right in front of you.

    • Bronco21

      Mr. Holt, and his company, built the animatronics for RSR…

  • Skimbob

    I would have to put the dragon at the top of my list. I love Fantasmic and he really is the star of the show. When he was gone it was not wuite the same. I get so excited to see him and then watch Mickey cut him down to size. I would have to say Lincoln is in close second. He is such a realistic AA that youcan’t help but be moved by him. Keep up the good work Garner.

  • Timekeeper

    Lovely Article. My favorite would have to be the Timekeeper AA and the Carousel Families.


  • Kevin

    Thanks for this awesome article Mr. Holt. It really helps me to step back from the illusion of an animated figure and understand why the it is so believable. For example, I have ridden Pirates of the Caribbean hundreds of times and I even work at the attraction now as a CP. I’ve always noticed a certain lifelike quality about the Auctioneer and didn’t realize until now that most of his liveliness is in part to the fact that he leans towards the man he is yelling to (the heckler). Thanks for the detailed look.

  • animatronic

    Hi Garner,

    Wow! It’s great that you would weigh in on this subject! Besides being a disney Geek, I am also a psychologist,and am fascinated by audio-animatronics. The use of them is what makes Disney so “magical”.

    I think the Wicked Witch from the Great Movie Ride is petty amazing! I also love Pirates (probably my favorite ride in Disneyland) for all it’s glory. Recently, I was pretty blown away by Radiator Springs Racers. Even though the animatronics are cars, they do such an incredible job of bringing them to life and make you feel like you are in the movie. One other cute one… Scuttle in the Little Mermaid ride at DCA…. Really well done.

    I’m curious if there is a figure that you would like to create?

  • Not My Real Name

    Universal’s dinosaurs in JP are better than the ones at Universe of Epcot.or the ones in the Primeval World on the DLRR.