Today’s Wheel of Years stopped at 1956, so here we go. In the years before Disneyland’s attractions were able to use Audio-Animatronic figures, both human and animal, animations were very rudimentary. A few still exist along the banks of the Rivers of America in the form of non-moving deer and lions. But a few do have ears that wiggle or tails that flick. Of course, the Jungle Cruise opened in 1955 with quite a few animals with various degrees of motion.
Within a few years of Disneyland’s opening, we began to add more creatures with more motions. But these were controlled by simple local controls such as drum timers, cams, and switches to operate simple motions. Fully programable digital show controls systems were years in the future. But we tried a lot of goofy mechanical tricks anyway to get a bit more action. The first example of these was the Jungle Cruise Charging Rhinos of 1958.
Vic Greene was a Disney animator who had become an attraction art director for the Jungle Cruise. Vic wanted me to design a machine that would feature two charging rhinos that would leap out at the passing Jungle Cruise boats to scare the guests. In order to reset back to the starting action position to be ready for charging the next boat less than a minute later, the rhinos would have just normally reversed their action by backing up. Vic wanted the rhinos to turn around and go back to the start, then turn around to face the oncoming boat and wait for the action to begin.
Now that’s a much more complex action than a simple drum timer, switches, air valves and cylinders. When you have a simple action with an actuating cylinder, the machine goes in one direction, then goes back to start in reverse. Getting the two rhinos to turn around independently of each other, go back to start, and then rotate back to the charging position…well, that’s a whole new deal. But I’d give it a try. I designed a track layout that would move the rhinos on a wheeled carriage that would mount the rhinos on a rotational post. Then I rigged up some leaf springs that would catch some trigger arms on the posts such that as the rhinos would start to back up, the rhinos would spin 180 degrees. This gave the turn around action that Vic wanted.
OK, the gizmo worked just fine when I demonstrated it to vic on the machine shop floor at the Burbank Studio. So we installed it in the Jungle Cruise. But before long, guests were complaining that sometimes the two rhinos were not always doing the same thing together. One or both rhinos were charging the boats tail first. Now we had animals that were mooning our guests and I was told to fix it immediately!
Oh boy…it seems that the combination of weather, water, and wear was allowing unpredictable actions. This was a big lesson for me – never depend on a machine design that cannot be precisely operated in a specifically defined manner. Any design that, even though simple, can develop random action may eventually be a failure. Thereafter I always designed specific actions. But I did try one last time anyway with the Mine Train Thru Nature’s Wonderland Olympic Elk animation (Battling Elk project No. 4988-1 thru 13, March 11 to April 22, 1960)
The elk machine was basically two elk connected at the antlers and supported by two horizontal pivots at the belly sides. The pivots in turn were mounted to two vertical swing arms pivoting on a common base and connected with a horizontal tie rod. One air cylinder would move the arms back and forth to simulate the elk pushing and shoving each other. Additional 4-leg action was by smaller air cylinders. All the cylinders were controlled by on-off air valves operated by a multi-cam drum timer. By adjusting the air valve flow rates, we could get a real random, but predictable action almost as good as the later fully programmable digital show control systems. These elk ran trouble free for many years.
One animal was hopeless, the Bounding Deer (project No. 4973-1 thru 16, November 11, 1959 to February 19, 1960) The idea was that a deer would traverse a triangular course thru a mountainside forest while appearing to jump along the course. The jumping action was by supporting the deer on a wheeled carriage with it’s feet connected to crank arms. This simple action looked pretty good. The carriage ran in a concrete trough pulled by a wire rope circuit. When the machine ran, it looked believable – Bambi prancing thru a forest. The bugaboo that killed this insane design was that the wire rope just would not stay stitched together, unraveling every few days. Thus it was soon abandoned. Anyone living today who remembers seeing it in action is lucky indeed. It qualifies as my worst design disaster of all time!
The most successful early animal I ever did was the Mountain Sheep (project No. 4987-1 thru 13, February 2 to March 22, 1960). All the animal had to do was walk out from behind some rocks to greet guests riding the mule train on a path on a mountainside. The gag was real simple to build and had an easy one cylinder action. After successful tests it was placed into operation on the Mine Train Thru Nature’s Wonderland. We ran it just one time, then turned it off, never to be seen again. It was my best and most believable animal ever.
Why? The mules took it to be real. As the first guest-laden mule train approached, the sheep leaped out at the lead mule, who promptly reared back. The poor creature toppled off the mountain path, falling into the river below dragging all the trailing mules and guests with it. We waited a week, then turned the sheep on again. This time the same mule stopped shortly before where the sheep had scared it and refused to go any further. To the mule, that sheep was real and was hiding behind the rocks to get him. So the sheep was never operated again. But I knew for sure I had designed a winner.